中醫淺談秋燥及口渴

廿四氣節秋分已臨,意味秋季已過了一半。秋風時有急勁,讀者可能已感覺到秋燥口乾的症狀。原來除外在乾燥氣候因素會產生口渴症狀外,中醫亦提及內在原因,例如濕熱或氣虛水飲症等不同中醫證型亦可產生口渴症狀。以下將跟大家分享不同體質類型,產生怎樣不同的口渴症狀。

熱能導致口渴,但熱有衛、氣、營、血程度之分。氣分熱會表現口渴、偏好冷飲,並見大便秘結、小便黃、舌苔乾燥色黃等症狀,治療要以清熱為主,一般可按體質服用菊花茶或五花茶等紓緩症狀;營或血分熱亦有口渴,但患者飲水量不多,並可有午後自覺身熱,或身體已出現斑疹,治療以清營涼血為主,醫師多處方水牛角、生地、牡丹皮等藥物。

濕熱體質的口渴並不能飲,肚腹脹滿、胃口差,並有四肢疲倦、大便不暢和小便黃等,治療常處方芳香燥濕藥物,例如藿香、香薷等。氣虛水飲內停者,多見神疲易累,時頭暈眼花,飲水後小便更頻繁,舌外觀特徵有舌色淡白及舌邊有齒印,治療多處方益氣健脾燥濕中藥,例如白朮、茯苓等。

肺燥津虧或陰虛火旺同見口舌乾燥,但前者或伴見乾咳無痰、皮膚乾燥、大便乾結,治療大法為潤燥生津為主;後者手足心熱,及午後自覺身熱,並多伴有心煩失眠,治療處清熱滋陰,例如生地、牡丹皮等。

此外,秋季燥邪可兼夾寒熱,例如夏末秋初時常兼夾熱邪,表現口乾重、喜冷飲、全身乾燥症狀尤為劇烈;秋冬交接時燥多夾寒,治療多轉變為潤燥方法,不能誤服過於苦寒清熱藥物,否則徒添咽喉不適。

秋季咽乾口燥不妨可喝雪耳南杏燉雪梨,並多喝水補充水份。但假若口渴持續,便要四診合參,了解體質,才可對症施治以解除症狀。

撰文 : 盧文健 物理治療師、註冊中醫師

欄名 : 理療感悟

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